MODULE 6.1: MOBILITY
Assess status and explore use of tools and methodologies
Develop effective packages of measures:
Measures need to contribute to achieving the vision, objectives, and targets. A set of options needs to be identified that realistically fits with the available resources. The first step is about gaining an overview of possible measures. Measures should be considered in “packages” rather than in isolation so as to take into account potential synergies. In a sequence that means:
- Re-assess the resource framework for measure implementation,
- Identify options of packages of measures,
- Make sure that the measures connect to the objectives,
- Assess the likely effectiveness of measures.
Learn from the cutting edge experience of others:
Identifying the most effective measures should be based on more than solely own experience, desktop research, and local exchange. It can be extremely valuable to learn from the experience of those who have already implemented innovative measures which you are considering for your local context, and for most measures, you will likely find other places in your country and/or elsewhere in Europe who have experimented with them. This avoids “re-inventing the wheel” and making costly mistakes that others may already have learnt from:
- Participate in regional, national, European, international LG networks like ecomobility, network events like European Mobility Week or initiatives like CIVITAS
- Benchmark issues & cases in your city / region
- Cooperate with neighbouring LG's on common mobility strategies and projects that need a broader focus
Consider the best value for the money:
Measure selection will be guided not only by effectiveness but also by the value for the money. Especially in times of tight budgets for urban transport and mobility, it is crucial to get the most impact possible for the resources spent. This will require a basic assessment of options with an eye on costs and benefits. This will also help you be realistic about what measures can be implemented and to avoid “pie-in-the-sky projects,” i.e. choose only measures that seem financially feasible.
Find financial arguments for public transport:
Every year local governments e.g. in Germany are estimated to spend some €15 billion on their car traffic. Only between 15% and 45% of these costs are recovered by, for example, parking fees and contributions from regional and national government. The remainder is the equivalent of € 100 – € 150 for every citizen paid from the local authority budget. Results from other European cities indicate comparable subsidies. In the Austrian City of Graz, the net spending for car transport is double the amount contributed to their public transport system. Find out more about hidden subsidies.
SWOT analysis - Assess status of all municipally owned / fleets
In order to improve your LG CO2 neutral mobility strategy, it is absolutely necessary first to identify the main obstacles that held you back till now. We suggest you try to revise the entire process and policy so as to clarify and record:
- Threats, and
encountered when trying to implement SECAP measure connected to the mobility of your LG.
SWOT analysis community mobility
The assessment of how your mobility impacts on CO2 emissions also has to be done at the community level with a SWOT analysis of the community mobility. You can list internal and external opposites side by side, trying to answer these simple questions: What are the strengths and weaknesses of your group, community, or effort, and what are the opportunities and threats facing it in connection with Mobility and CO2 reduction?
Explore taking into account other impacts: safety, health, noise...
Laying the foundations for greener transport:
2nd Generation SECAPs must try to correlate CO2 emissions with a set of indicators of other air pollutants. For the first time ever the European Commission is proposing a greenhouse gas emissions target for transport. The White Paper “Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a Competitive and Resource Efficient Transport System” called for breaking the oil dependence of transport and set a target of 60% GHG reduction from transport by 2050. But how is transport going to provide the services that our society needs while minimising its environmental impacts? The Transport White Paper addresses more comprehensive quantified environment-related targets in transport policy and includes in its analysis also other relevant and important transport and environment related policy and legislation. Explore these cross-cutting issues within your city and set respective targets.
Emission Inventories that take into account all pollutants:
With a few exceptions, all modes of transport emit air pollution from the combustion of liquid fossil fuel. Most transport sources today therefore emit similar pollutants, although the relative abundance of these varies depending on the exact composition of the fuel and details of the combustion conditions.
LGs aiming to develop 2nd Generation SECAPs on mobility that take also into account other emitting source can use the EEA as reference: The EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook provides assistance on estimating emissions from both anthropogenic and natural emission sources. It is designed to facilitate reporting of emission inventories by countries to the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive. From both documents LGs can harvest ideas and approaches to assess and develop their own alternative infrastruture for mobility.
Road traffic deaths and injuries represent a global public health epidemic. That epidemic has reached crisis proportions and is set to worsen over the years ahead. It is the product of transport policies that put vehicles, highways, and speed before people and road safety. The same ‘vehicle first’ approach has makes current approaches to transport policy a threat to international efforts to tackle global environmental problems, including air pollution and climate change. 2011 saw the start of a UN Decade of Action for Road Safety, which marked something of a breakthrough. The ‘Rio+20’ provided an early opportunity for governments and LGs to translate this decade into action. This focus of the UN could also provide local politicians and staff with an additional push for more action within the context of SECAPs and Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs), in particular if a Local Agenda 21 exists.
The European Commission estimates the reduction in health-related cost of GHG emissions (incl. transport) to range from €3.5 – 16.7 billion depending on how much of the reductions are done in EU domestically. In addition to health related savings, the 30% greenhouse gas reduction target comes with the co-benefit of reduced costs in other air pollution control measures of €2.8 - 5.3 billion because it will reduce the emissions of air pollution in terms of particular matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone and nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 4-9% in the EU. Explore the health-related impact of your local mobility action and argue for more based on economical benefits.
Explore link to Urban Planning
A new way of planning:
Sustainable urban mobility planning is planning for the future of your city with its people as the focus. Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans define a set of interrelated measures designed to satisfy the mobility needs of people and businesses. Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans are the results of an integrated planning approach, and they address all modes and forms of transport in cities and their surrounding areas. The strength of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans is that they build on existing planning activities. Link your energy planning to Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans today to realise your low emission community tomorrow.
Advanced standards, tools and methodologies
Mobile Smart Grids:
second generation SECAPs cannot avoid developing the Mobile Smart Grid concepts. These concepts go beyond the idea of smart grid, entailing interaction between electric cars, power grids, and power generation units. With the integration of electric vehicles in urban fleets a new energy supply chain enters the game: car batteries. The management of the batteries is the basic point of smart grid management: energy supply and grid capacity can be balanced better than ever before.
Mobility Management in urban areas can be seen as the driver of all issues related to sustainability linked to mobility. Take a look to the European Platform on Mobility Management.