MODULE 6.2: MOBILITY
Strengthen your action plan with more ambitious measures
Latest standards and technology options
Always stay updated on the latest standards and technology options, if relevant and applicable in your context. Eltis, the Urban mobility Portal can be an excellent reference point.
For initiatives aiming to develop integrated and sustainable strategies to increase the use of electric vehicles, see the project Electric Vehicles in Urban Europe.
- Sustainable traffic mobility management in cities requires ultimately the end of individual transport by cars and a switch to carpools, bicycles and public transportation. A very interesting aspect can be the survey of traveling needs of companies (both public and private) in the LG boundaries. With simple surveys it is possible to see the initial success of the actions and then to reach more ambitious goals as a consequence.
- See the example of car pooling, Zagreb, Croatia (video), and the best practice of the Municipality of Gaubitsch a city that provides its inhabitants, employees and associations with access to a rentable electric car for 99 Euro annual membership fee and a fee of 10 cents per kilometre.
- A bicycle sharing system, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a very short term basis. The central concept of the systems is to provide free or affordable access to bicycles for short-distance trips in an urban area as an alternative to motorized public transport or private vehicles, thereby reducing traffic congestion, noise, and air pollution. See the self-service bicycle transit system of Paris - France.
- If you are located within a tourist region, read through the state-of-the-art report of municipal mobility published by the IEE co-funded project Starter - sustainable transport in tourism.
- Eventually, improvements to public transport services, vehicles, and related infrastructure must be one of the aspects taken into consideration by 2nd Generation SECAPs.
- Make it easier for your staff and politicians to cycle to work: The creation of a cycle-parking lot, the installation of showers in offices, the promotion of safety jackets for citizens and employess, etc. all these measures help the implementaiton of sustainable mobilty and SECAPs. Study the example of Brixton CAFOD that doubled the number of staff cycling to work in London through the introduction of a travel plan in 2008, which focused on encouraging cycling. It contained the following measures:
- Installation of 10 secure cycle stands (which replaced 4 car parking spaces) funded by TfL;
- Set up a Cycle2work scheme which allowed employees to purchase a bike and repay via monthly salary contributions. As the repayments are taken from employees gross salary (not net they do not pay tax or National Insurance for the loan for the bike, which can result in significant savings;
- Introduction of pool bikes for employees (funded by the local Borough Council);
- Installtion of showers and changing rooms;
- Set up of a travel information notice board.
The Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan aims to create a sustainable urban transport system, by addressing at least the following objectives:
- Ensure the transport system is accessible to all;
- Improve the safety and security of its users;
- Reduce air and noise pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption;
- Improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the transportation of persons and goods;
- Enhance the attractiveness and quality of the urban environment.
The policies and measures defined in a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan should comprehensively address all modes and forms of transport in the entire urban agglomeration: Public and private, passenger and freight, motorised and non-motorised, moving and parking.
Such approach to planning must naturally be connected to general urban planning. Thus have lunch with the head of your municipal mobility department to discuss ideas of SECAP and SUMP.
Smart grids and e-vehicles
- Electrification is a promising route to low carbon road transportation: recent innovations in electricity distribution and load management may offer opportunities to spread investment costs and the storage capacity of electric vehicles. This development is attracting the interest of electricity suppliers. As the use of electric vehicles grows, this new electricity load will need careful management. Electric utilities have begun to deploy “smart grid” technologies to better manage demand using intelligent metering systems and the internet to manage the use of household and office heating systems and appliances - saving energy, cutting CO2 emissions and to shave peak loads. Smart grids not only enable EV recharging to be scheduled intelligently but permit batteries to be used to help meet peak demand. Car batteries could have residual charge drawn down to run household appliances in the evening peak and then be recharged at night – with a quick charge option for an evening trip.
- The European Technology Platform on Smart Systems Integration: EPoSS is an industry-driven policy initiative, defining R&D and innovation needs as well as policy requirements related to Smart Systems Integration and integrated Micro- and Nanosystems. EPoSS seeks to contribute to EUROPE 2020, the EU's growth strategy for the coming decade, to become a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy.
- However, remember, electricity is not a clean energy per se: It all depends on the source it comes from. For policy consistency reason, the development of electrical vehicles must be linked to the development of local production of renewable electricity which should cover the needs of those vehicles. Moreover spacial issues should also be considered (see picture) and the average of use of private cars - 23h parking vs. 1h driving per day - need to be changed by car-sharing schemes.
- The City of Stockholm has through 15 years of dedicated work been able to boost a market for clean vehicles in Stockholm and Sweden, where more than 40 % of all new vehicles are classified as clean. Learn what policy measures were applied by watch this video.
- Biofuels are acknowledged as being an integral part of any future sustainable transport system.
- Biofuels are fuels produced from organic products. Currently, the main biofuels are vegetable oil (replacing diesel) and ethanol (replacing petrol). These are so-called first generation biofuels. This means they are produced from alimentary raw materials (soybean, corn, wheat, sugar beet and rapeseed mainly).
- However, the first generation of biofuels is hotly debated in terms of their impacts on energy and GHG emissions. Many non-governmental organisations, but also scientific studies question the impact on domestic and foreign related land-use change triggered by biofuel targets and respective market incentives. Therefore LGs should consider any negative global impact (food prices, deforestation, land eviction), listen to campaigning and scientific arguments, before including biofuels into their SECAP portfolio.
- Producing biofuels locally and consider any negative impact in the feasibility analysis before the decision of implementation is the way forward. Moreover the 2nd generation of biofuels predict good potential and less conflicts in the future.
- Recycling cooking oils into biofuels in La Rochelle, France: A used cooking oils treatment plant using raw material collected from restaurant owners, implemented in La Rochelle in the framework of the CIVITAS-SUCCESS project. Operational since April 2008, it offers an original solution to recycle locally a polluting waste into a 2nd generation biofuel.
Freight and urban logistics
The determination of transport policy measures for sustainable city logistics is another key aspect to tackle mobility related emissions. Moreover, urban logistics measures have also an impact on general freight logistics. See how two cities dealt with it:
- Sustainable freight logistics in Ljubljana, Slovenia
- Sustainable last mile logistics in Padova, Italy, with Cityporto